UW Biodiversity Related Courses

Courses are listed by univeristy department.

Click on a department heading to view the course offerings being considered by that department.


Anthropology (ANTH) >>


4110. Zooarchaeology I. 3. Introductory level seminar in the archaeological analysis of faunal materials. Emphasis is on identifi cation and curation of bones from archaeological and Late Pleistocene paleontological contexts, including their use in the interpretation of prehistoric and historic human behavior, the investigation of paleoenvironmental conditions and paleoecological relationships and problem-oriented taphonomic research. Dual listed with ANTH 5110. Prerequisite: ANTH 1300.

4111. Zooarchaeology II. 3. Advanced level seminar in the archaeological analysis of faunal materials. Emphasis is on study of bones as an integrated component of basic archaeological research, including their use in the investigation of paleoenvironmental conditions and paleoecological relationships as well as problem-oriented taphonomic research, and the interpretation of human behavior. Dual listed with ANTH 5111. Prerequisite: ANTH 4110/5110.

4215 [4200]. Evolution and Hominin Fossils. 3. Surveys hominin fossil record in context of evolutionary process, stressing structure-function and the dynamics of adaptive responses. Dual listed with ANTH 5215. Prerequisite: ANTH 1100. (Normally offered every third semester)

4255. Bioarchaeology. 3. Study of the human skeleton in archaeological context to reveal the biological and cultural pasts of individuals and communities. Using case studies, covers the history of the fi eld, ethics of working with human remains, theoretical and methodological approaches to mortuary archaeology. Gain hands-on experience by working with specimens from the UWyoming Human Remains Repository. Dual listed with ANTH 5255. Prerequisites: ANTH 1100 or 1300.

4260. Anthropology of Food, Culture, and Nutrition. 3. Offers a biocultural perspective to the study of diet, nutrition, subsistence, and food systems. Study includes basic nutritional principles and diet seen in evolutionary, cross-cultural, ethnographic, and historical perspective; method and theory in nutritional anthropology; and contemporary issues in nutrition, cuisine, and foodways. Dual Listed with ANTH 5260. Prerequisites: ANTH 1100 or 1200.

4300. Anthropology of Religion. 3. Provides a comparative anthropological study of religious systems, emphasizing analysis of symbolism, myth and ritual. Dual listed with ANTH 5300. Prerequisite: ANTH 1200. (Normally offered every third semester)

4310. Environmental Anthropology. 3. Addresses how human societies interact with their surroundings, emphasizing cultural understandings of the environment. Introduces variety of theoretical and methodological approaches to topics ranging from problems of the American West to global environmental change. Cross listed with ENR 4310. Dual listed with ANTH 5310. Prerequisite: ANTH 1200. (Normally offered every third semester)

5020. Biological Anthropology. 3. Offers a graduate level overview of biological anthropology. Beginning with the history of relevant areas of human biology, provides extensive discussion of such areas as paleoanthropology, primatology, and human variation. Also includes detailed theoretical examinations of topics within hominid evolution, the concept of race and sociobiology. Prerequisite: first year anthropology graduate student standing.

5110. Zooarchaeology I. 3. An introductory level seminar in the archaeological analysis of faunal materials. Emphasis is on the identifi cation and curation of bones from archaeological and Late Pleistocene paleontological contexts, including their use in the interpretation of prehistoric and historic human behavior, the investigation of paleoenvironmental conditions and paleoecological relationships and problem-oriented taphonomic research. Dual listed with ANTH 4110. Prerequisite: ANTH 1300.

5215 [5200]. Evolution and Hominin Fossils. 3. Surveys hominin fossil record in context of evolutionary process, stressing structure-function and the dynamics of adaptive responses. Dual listed with ANTH 4215. Prerequisite: ANTH 1100. (Normally offered every third semester)

5260. Anthropology of Food, Culture, and Nutrition. 3. Offers a biocultural perspective to the study of diet, nutrition, subsistence, and food systems. Study includes basic nutritional principles and diet seen in evolutionary, cross-cultural, ethnographic, and historical perspective; method and theory in nutritional anthropology; and contemporary issues in nutrition, cuisine, and foodways. Dual Listed with ANTH 4260. Prerequisites: ANTH 1100 or 1200.

5315. Human Behavioral Ecology. 3. Examines the models and techniques of human behavioral ecology applied to hunter-gatherer societies; covers foraging, demography, life history, division of labor, sharing, and social inequality. Dual listed with ANTH 4315. Prerequisite: ANTH 1100, 1200, and 1300.


Botany (BOT) >>


3000. Plant Form and Function. 4. Integration of basic vascular plant anatomy, morphology, physiology within the contexts of modern evolutionary and ecological theory. Students receive in depth exposure to fl uid fl ow, energetics, development, growth, general metabolism, and structure, and functions for plant cells, tissue and organs. Prerequisite: LIFE 2023 or LIFE 2022 or equivalent; and minimum of 4 credits of college chemistry. (Normally offered spring semester) 

3100. Plants and Civilization. 3., An overview of ways plants have and will continue to infl uence human civilizations. Botanical origins and socio-economic impacts of deforestation, plant fi bers, stimulants, drugs and medicinals, wood products, foods and other plant-derived resources is discussed. Students write short papers building skills in research, critical thinking, argumentation, and citation strength. Prerequisite: LIFE 1000 or 1010. (Normally offered spring semester) 

3600. Plant Diversity and Systematics. 4. A broad introduction to modern vascular plant systematics, with emphasis on identifi cation, classifi cation, nomenclature, speciation, adaptation, convergence, and phylogenetic methods. Lab emphasizes learning major fl owering plant families and genera, major invasive species, use of keys and manuals, and plant collection, with a Wyoming and Rocky Mountain focus. Prerequisite: LIFE 2023, or equivalent. 

4420. Conservation Biology. 3. Addresses the broadest environmental issues facing society (habitat loss, invasion, overexploitation) and the mechanisms driving them, with particular attention to the Intermountain West. Through computer exercises, students also learn how to evaluate conservation efforts and make management recommendations. Cross listed with ENR/ZOO 4420. Prerequisites: LIFE 3400 and one of the following: ENR 3500, STAT 2050, or STAT 2070. 

4640. Flora of the Rocky Mountains. 3. Field course. Acquaints students with the fl ora of the surrounding region. Emphasizes fi eld identifi cation and collection from plant communities encompassing a wide range of environments, such as grasslands, forests and alpine tundra. Prerequisite: LIFE 2023. (Normally offered summer session) 

4680. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. 4. A study of classifi cation principles, nomenclature rules and systematic botany literature. Plants of the Rocky Mountain region are used primarily as examples, but the course gives a comprehensive view of the characteristics and relationships of the principal plants families. Dual listed with BOT 5680. Prerequisite: LIFE 2023. (Normally offered spring semester)

4700Vegetation Ecology. 4. Reviews the ecology of major vegetation types, emphasizing patterns of vegetation distribution, vegetation-environment relationships, succession, the effect of fi re and management decisions, and methods of vegetation analysis. Dual listed with BOT 5700. Prerequisite: LIFE 3400. (Normally offered fall semester)

4730. Plant Physiological Ecology. 4. Acquaints advanced students with environmental factors which affect the establishment and growth of plants. Emphasizes adaptive mechanisms. Dual listed with BOT 5730; cross listed with RNEW 4730. Prerequisites: one course in physiology and one course in ecology. (Normally offered spring semester)

4775Forest Ecology. 4. Integrative study of the structure, function, and ecological diversity of forested ecosystems, and the physical factors that infl uence this diversity, including emergent properties of energy fl ow and nutrient cycling. Special emphasis is given to understanding forest disturbances and succession, and implications for impacts of management and sustainability are discussed throughout. Dual listed with BOT 5775; cross listed with RNEW 4775. Prerequisite: LIFE 3400. (Normally offered fall semester of odd-numbered years)

5060. Fundamental Concepts in Evolution. 3. Explores fundamental concepts in evolutionary biology including evolutionary ecology, population genetics, and speciation with an emphasis on both theoretical frameworks and practical applications. Discussion included. Cross listed with ECOL/ZOO 5060. Prerequisite: graduate student in good standing. 5111. Remote Sensing. 4. Introduces students to the fundamentals of remote sensing with a strong emphasis on vegetation, land cover and environmental applications. Students learn to use digital spectral data to distinguish characteristics of the terrestrial biosphere important for ecological and land management applications. Dual listed with BOT 4111; cross listed with GEOG 4111/5111. Prerequisites: QA and one science course with laboratory.

5700. Vegetation Ecology. 4. The ecology of major vegetation types, with emphasis on patterns of vegetation distribution, vegetationenvironment relationships, succession, the effect of fi re and management decisions, and methods of vegetation analysis. Dual listed with BOT 4700. Prerequisite: LIFE 3400. 5710. Research in Ecology. 1-6 (Max. 6). Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor.


Entomology (ENTO) >>


1000. Insect Biology. 3.  Introduces insects and related arthropods. Introduces aspects of insect biology, behavior, life history and diversity, as well as many ways that insects affect humans.

1001. Insect Biology. 4. Covers same lecture material as ENTO 1000, but includes a laboratory.

4300. Applied Insect Ecology. 3. Examines concepts of insect ecology and their application to the management of agricultural and rangeland insect pests. Control of rangeland weeds using insects in also examined. Covers population dynamics, predator-prey and insect-plant interactions, biological control

4678. Aquatic Entomology. 3. Emphasizes biology, ecology, distribution and taxonomy of aquatic insects. Includes aquatic insects as indicators of pollution. Students must make and identify a collection of immature aquatic insects. Dual listed with ENTO 5678. Prerequisite: ENTO 1000, 1001. (Normally offered fall semester of even-numbered years)

4682. Insect Anatomy and Physiology. 5. Studies structure and function of the insect body, particularly emphasizing the relationship between anatomical features and their cellular/biochemical functions. Dual listed with ENTO 5682. Prerequisite: ENTO 1000. (Normally offered spring semester of even-numbered years)

4684. Classifi cation of Insects. 4. Studies insect orders, families and taxonomic treatises. Requires collection of adult insects representing 100 families, or equivalent museum project, for completion of course requirements. Dual listed with ENTO 5684. Prerequisite: ENTO 1000. (Normally offered fall semester of oddnumbered years)

4687. Insect Evolution. 3. Examines major events of insect evolution including origins, fossils, wings and fl ight, metamorphosis, extinct orders, diversifi cation patterns of modern orders, climate change, plate tectonics, coevolution with plants, parasitism, social behavior and origin of modern faunas. Dual listed with ENTO 5687. Prerequisite: ENTO 4684 required; ENTO 4670, 4682 recommended.

4884. Insect Behavior. 3. Examines the behavior of insects, including foraging, mating and social behavior. The course focuses on the applied as well as the fundamental aspects of behaviors, and both the strategic and physiological bases of behavior. Dual listed with ENTO 5884. Prerequisite: ENTO 1000.

5300. Applied Insect Ecology. 3. Examines concepts of insect ecology and their application to the management of agricultural and rangeland insect pests. Control of rangeland weeds using insects is also examined. Covers population dynamics, predator-prey and insect-plant interactions, biological control and integrated pest management. Dual listed with ENTO 4300. Prerequisite: ENTO 1000 or 9 hours of biology or ecology related coursework.

5601. Insects for Teachers: Collection and Identifi cation of Insects. 1. Designed for school teachers K-12. Basic concepts such as insect classifi cation, insect habitats, insect metamorphosis, and destructive and benefi cial insects are discussed with emphasis on the presentation of these concepts in the school classroom. Half of the class is devoted to fi eld trips, laboratories, workshop activities, and fi lms. Each student will make an insect collection, and learn how to preserve, mount, and identify specimens to order level. Course may be taken independently of ENTO 5602. Identical to NASC 4790. Prerequisite: junior standing. Offered summer term only.

5602. Insects in the Classroom: Insects and Their Ways. 1. Designed for school teachers K-12. Basic concepts of insect structure and function (insect morphology, insect physiology, insect ecology, and insect behavior) are discussed with emphasis on the presentation of these concepts using living insects in the classroom. Half of the class is devoted to fi eld trips, laboratories, workshop activities, and fi lms. Each student will design, conduct, and write-up an experiment with insects. Course may be taken independently of ENTO 5601. Identical to NASC 4790. Prerequisite: junior standing. Offered summer term.

5678. Aquatic Entomology. 3. Biology, ecology, distribution and taxonomy of aquatic insects will be emphasized. Additional material covered will include aquatic insects as indicators of pollution. Students must make and identify a collection of immature aquatic insects. Dual listed with ENTO 4678. Prerequisite: 1 year of basic biology.

5682. Insect Physiology. 5. Structure and function of the insect body, with particular emphasis on the relationship between anatomical features and their cellular/biochemical functions. Dual listed with ENTO 4682. Prerequisite: ENTO 1000.


Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) >>


1100. Environment and Natural Resource Problems and Policies. 2.  Survey of environmental and natural resources issues and policies at local/regional, national, and global scales. Students are challenged to think critically as they dissect the causes, complexities, and solutions of contemporary, interdisciplinary environmental and natural resource challenges. Prerequisites: none.

1300. Foundations of Sustainability. 3. Examine the basic concepts, theories, and practice of sustainability as a foundation for future learning in the fi eld. Explore principles of sustainability in our community and personal lives through various lenses and systems. Prerequisites: none.

1500. Water, Dirt, and Earth’s Environment. 4. . Introductory environmental geology course focusing on water and soil both as hazards and as life-sustaining resources. Explores surface processes and climate change over geological and human timescales. Case studies illustrate the environmental tradeoffs of resource use. Cross listed with GEOL 1500. Prerequisites: none.

2100 [BOT 2100]. Forest Management. 3. Principles of forest management. Topics include the laws affecting forest management, methods of harvesting wood from forests, fi re and insect management, the effects of disturbances on stream fl ow and nutrient cycling, and the challenges of developing management plans for forests. Cross listed with RNEW 2100. Prerequisites: LIFE 1001 or 1010.

2330. Environmental Ethics. 3. Introduces students to ethical theory in environmental problem cases, and to philosophical issues in environmental philosophy. Ethical theories include natural law, utilitarianism, deontological and rights-based theories, relativism. Topics may include: conservation/ preservation, resource management, pollution, overpopulation, factory farming, Leopold’s land ethic, deep ecology, holism, eco-feminism. Cross listed with PHIL 2330.

2345. Natural Resource Ethics. 3.  Introduces students to ethics in context of natural resource extraction, use, conservation, preservation, and distribution. Ethical frameworks include teleological and deontological theories primarily applied to human needs and wants. Concepts and applications of environmental justice are addressed, including private property, sustainability, and obligations to future generations. Cross listed with PHIL/RNEW 2345. Prerequisites: none.

2450. Principles of Fish and Wildlife Management. 3. Emphasizes principles of habitat and population biology and management, human dimensions of wildlife management, as well as law and policy. Cross listed with ZOO 2450. Prerequisites: LIFE 1010 and 2022. (Offered spring semester)

2800. Introduction to Outdoor Leadership. 2. Designed to increase knowledge and competencies related to leading others in the outdoors. Signifi cant focus is on self-awareness, judgment, and decision-making. The specifi c skills and theories students learn throughout provide a foundation for other leadership endeavors. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

3450 [G&R 3450]. Weather and Climate. 3. Systematically examines elements and controls of weather and climate with application to regions. Cross listed with GEOG 3450. Prerequisite: GEOG 1000, 1010 or 1020. (Normally offered fall semester)

4310. Environmental Anthropology. 3. Addresses how human societies interact with their surroundings, emphasizing cultural understandings of the environment. Introduces variety of theoretical and methodological approaches to topics ranging from problems of the American West to global environmental change. Cross listed with ANTH 4310. Dual listed with ENR 5310. Prerequisite: ANTH 1200. (Normally offered every third semester)

4420. Conservation Biology. 3. Addresses the broadest environmental issues facing society (habitat loss, invasion, over exploitation) and the mechanisms driving them, with particular attention to the Intermountain West. Through computer exercises, students also learn how to evaluate conservation efforts and make management recommendations. Cross listed with BOT/ZOO 4420. Prerequisites: LIFE 3400 and one of the following: ENR 3500, STAT 2050, or STAT 2070.

4890 [4990]. Topics in Environment and Natural Resources. 1-6.0 (Max. 12). Special topics in environment and natural resources are offered under this number. The specific subject matter varies each year because the course is normally taught by faculty who wish to present a specialized topic of interest to ENR and other students. Check class schedule for specific topics offered each year. Dual listed with ENR 5890. Prerequisites: ENR 3000 or permission of the instructor.

5030. Ecology of Knowledge. 3. Examines the development of “disciplines” and explores defi nitions, theories, methods and practices of interdisciplinary work. Cross listed with AMST 5030. Dual listed with ENR 4030. Prerequisite: graduate status.

5310. Environmental Anthropology. 3. Addresses how human societies interact with their surroundings, emphasizing cultural understandings of the environment. Introduces variety of theoretical and methodological approaches to topics ranging from problems of the American West to global environmental change. Cross listed with ANTH 5310. Dual listed with ENR 4310. Prerequisite: ANTH 1200.


Microbiology (MICR) >>


2021 [2210]. General Microbiology. 4. Introduces nature and diversity of microorganisms and their implications for all of biology. Covers comparative properties of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes, as well as their roles as disease agents, ecological agents and model systems for understanding of fundamental biological processes at the molecular level. Cross listed with MOLB 2021. Prerequisites: LIFE 1010, CHEM 1000 or equivalent. 2220. Pathogenic Microbiology. 4. Covers

3000. Microbial Diversity and Molecular Phylogeny. 3. Surveys the microbial world from an evolutionary perspective. It is intended Microbiology College of Agriculture and Natural Resources 128 for students majoring in zoology, botany, microbiology, biology, molecular biology and related areas that have an ecological emphasis. Cross listed with LIFE 3000. Prerequisite: LIFE 2020 or MOLB 2210 or MOLB/MICR 2240.


Renewable Resources (RNEW) >>


2345. Natural Resource Ethics. 3. Introduction to ethics in context of natural resource extraction, use, conservation, preservation, and distribution. Ethical frameworks include teleological and deontological theories primarily applied to human needs and wants. Concepts and applications of environmental justice are addressed, including private property, sustainability, and obligations to future generations. Cross listed with ENR/PHIL 2340. Prerequisites: none.

3000. Tropical Ecology. 3. Examines the characteristics of tropical ecosystems, how they evolved, their value to humans, their present status, and current issues relating to biodiversity, deforestation, extinction, and conservation. Prerequisites: LIFE 1001 or 1010.

4340. Issues: Environmental Ethics. 3. Encompasses selected topics in environmental and natural resource ethics. Cross listed with PHIL 4340. Prerequisites: PHIL 2330, 3300, 3350.

4400. Invasive Plant Ecology. 3. Ecological impacts of invasive, non-indigenous plant species, the ecological, genetic and evolutionary hypotheses for invasiveness, as well as management strategies for invasive plant species. Dual listed with RNEW 5400; cross listed with AECL 4400. Prerequisite: LIFE 3400.

5400. Invasive Plant Ecology. 3. Ecological impacts of invasive, non-indigenous plant species, the ecological, genetic and evolutionary hypotheses for invasiveness as well as management strategies for invasive plant species. Dual listed with RNEW 4400; cross listed with AECL 5400. Prerequisite: LIFE 3400.

5500. Stable Isotope Ecology. 3. Application of stable isotope measurements to organismal and systems ecology. Lectures address thetheory underlying the use of stable isotopes at natural abundance levels as tracers and integrators of important physiological and ecological processes. Laboratory exercises provide hands on experience with stable isotope ratio measurements. Prerequisite: graduate classifi cation in a natural science or agriculture discipline.

5730. Plant Physiological Ecology. 4. Acquaints advanced students with environmental factors which affect the establishment and growth of plants. Emphasizes adaptive mechanisms. Lecture with inclusive hands-on laboratory. Dual listed with RNEW 4730; cross listed with BOT 4730/5730. Prerequisite: one course in physiology and one course in ecology.


Rangeland Ecology and Watershed Management (REWM) >>


2500. Rangeland Plant Identification. 2. Sight identifi cation and distribution of western U.S. rangeland plants. Prerequisite: REWM 2000. (Normally offered fall semester)

3500. Rangeland Plant Ecophysiology. 3. Examines plant physiological processes that have application to ecological and land management issues. Topics include carbon assimilation, water relations, mineral nutrition as applied to plant distributions, plant and system responses to grazing, as well as plant tolerance of extreme conditions including drought, excessive temperatures and changes in climate. Prerequisite: LIFE 2022 or 2023. (Normally offered fall semester)

5830. Wildlife Habitat Ecology. 2. For students in animal ecology, wildlife science, or rangeland ecology emphasizing the relationships between wildlife populations and their habitats. Emphasis on concepts forming the basis of wildlife habitat ecology including habitat and niche, carrying capacity, habitat measurements, resource selection, habitatrelationships modeling, habitat management, and habitat restoration. Prerequisites: STAT 2050 (or equivalent) and graduate standing.


Soil Science (SOIL) >>


4140. Soil Microbiology. 4. Fundamental principles of soil microbiology and how they relate to microbial ecology, environmental contamination, agriculture and forestry. Dual listed with SOIL 5140; cross listed with MICR 4140. Prerequisite: SOIL 2010.

4150. Forest and Range Soils. 3. Characteristics and management of forest and range soils primarily in arid environments. Examines pedagogical units representative of forests and ranges and soil properties, such as nutrient availability and water relations that infl uence plant growth. Dual listed with SOIL 5150. Prerequisites: SOIL 2010. (Normally offered fall semester)


Zoology (ZOO) >>


2450. Principles of Fish and Wildlife Management. 3. Emphasizes principles of habitat and population biology and management, human dimensions of wildlife management, as well as law and policy. Cross listed with ENR 2450. Prerequisites: LIFE 1010

3600. Principles of Animal Behavior. 3. Intensively introduces scientifi c study of animal behavior. Utilizes evolutionary, ecological and physiological approach. Prerequisite: introductory course in zoology, biology or psychology. (Normally offered spring semester)

4190 [4230]. Comparative Environmental Physiology. 4. Studies and interprets principles of physiology which adapt animals to various environmental constraints. Introduces discipline which has risen between traditional fi elds of physiology and ecology and provides understanding of animal distribution and survival. Fulfi lls degree requirements in physiology subsection for the zoology major. Dual listed with ZOO 5190. Prerequisites: LIFE 2022 and one year of chemistry. (Offered spring semester)

4300 [4720]. Wildlife Ecology and Management.5. Integrates concepts of vertebrate ecology with the art of wildlife management, stressing approaches to deal with the inherent uncertainty of managing populations. Strategies to increase or decrease populations of target species, tools used to determine population status (e.g., viability analysis, monitoring, habitat assessment), and ecosystem manage- Zoolog y and Physiolog y College of Arts and Sciences 331 ment approaches. Laboratory included. Dual listed with ZOO 5300. Prerequisite: LIFE 3400. (Offered fall semester)

4310 [4730]. Fisheries Management. 3. Acquaints students with theory and techniques of inland fisheries management. Includes methods of evaluating growth and production, rates of mortality and recruitment and use of yield models in fi sheries biology. Includes laboratory and fi eld exercises. Dual listed with ZOO 5310. Prerequisite: ZOO 4330. (Normally offered fall semester)

4330 [4750]. Ichthyology. 3. Anatomy, physiology and classification of fishes, emphasizing classifi cation and identifi cation of Wyoming fishes. Includes laboratory. Dual listed with ZOO 5330. Prerequisite: LIFE 2022. (Normally offered spring semester)

4350 [4780]. Ornithology. 3. Acquaints students with classification, identification, morphology, distribution, natural history and ecology of the birds of North America. Includes laboratory. Dual listed with ZOO 5350. Prerequisite: LIFE 2022. (Offered spring semester)

4370 [4790]. Mammalogy. 3. Studies mammals of the world, emphasizing natural history, distribution, taxonomy, ecology and morphology of mammalian species. Includes laboratory. Dual listed with ZOO 5370. Prerequisite: LIFE 2022. (Offered fall semester)

4380. Herpetology. 3. Introduces the ecology, behavior, morphology, evolution, systematics and conservation of reptiles and amphibians. Dual listed with ZOO 5380. Prerequisite: LIFE 2022.

4400. Population Ecology. 3. Explores quantitative ecology of animal populations, emphasizing theoretical and empirical work. Provides modern coverage of principles of population ecology for wildlife majors and others who expect to deal with ecological problems in their careers. Dual listed with ZOO 5400. Prerequisites: LIFE 1010, 3400 and STAT 2050. (Offered spring semester)

4415. Behavioral Ecology. 3. Applies empirical and theoretical approaches to ecological and evolutionary underpinnings for behaviors ranging from foraging and predation to social grouping and mating systems. Emphasizes comparative analyses (what phylogenetic patterns exist across diverse species?) as well as genetic/fi tness benefi ts (how do individuals benefi t from apparently puzzling behaviors?). Dual listed with ZOO 5415. Prerequisites: ZOO 3600 or LIFE 3400 or permission of the instructor. (Offered fall semester)

4420. Conservation Biology. 3. Addresses the broadest environmental issues facing society (habitat loss, invasion, overexploitation) and the mechanisms driving them, with particular attention to the Intermountain West. Through computer exercises, students also learn how to evaluate conservation efforts and make management recommendations. Cross listed with BOT/ENR 4420. Prerequisites: LIFE 3400 and one of the following: ENR 3500, STAT 2050, or STAT 2070.

4425. Genetic Markers. 3. Overview of the use of genetic, molecular markers for the analysis of natural populations of plants and animals. Approaches range from individual identifi cation to systematics, with a core focus on populations. Dual listed with ZOO 5425. Prerequisite: LIFE 3050.

4430. Limnology Laboratory. 2. Utilizes basic fi eld techniques in limnology. Emphasizes analysis and interpretation of data obtained from fi eld and laboratory exercises. Prerequisite: concurrent enrollment in ZOO 4440. (Offered fall semester)

4440. Limnology. 3. Studies ecology of inland waters; biological, chemical and physical features of lakes and streams. Prerequisites: LIFE 1010, 3400 and one year of chemistry. (Offered fall semester)

4540. Invertebrate Zoology. 4. Studies major invertebrate phyla of the animal kingdom. Studies each phylum with respect to morphological and taxonomic characteristics; functional and evolutionary relationships; environmental adaptations; life cycles of representative types. Includes laboratory. Dual listed with ZOO 5540. Prerequisite: LIFE 2022. (Offered fall semester)

4560. Quantitative Conservation Biology. 4. Covers the application of ecology and genetics to conservation biology, emphasizing the use of mathematical analysis and quantitative thinking. Includes mathematical homework, discussion sections, computer labs, and independent student projects. Dual listed with ZOO 5560. Prerequisite: approval of instructor.

5060. Fundamental Concepts in Evolution. 3. Explores fundamental concepts in evolutionary biology including evolutionary ecology, population genetics, and speciation with an emphasis on both theoretical frameworks and practical applications. Discussion included. Cross listed with ECOL/BOT 5060. Prerequisite: graduate student in good standing.

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